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GBV Bibliography

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GBV Biography: Background/Context

  • Palestinian Women and Security: Why Palestinian Women and Girls Do Not Feel Secure
    Stephanie Chaban, Reema Daraghmeh, Garance Stettler (Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces), 07/1905

    This report presents the perspectives of Palestinian women and girls on issues related to security as well as their assessment of the services provided by local authorities and/ or the international community to address their security needs. It concludes with a series of recommendations made by Palestinian women and girls for improving these services. Available in English and Arabic

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  • Ending violence against women
    L. Heise, M. Ellsberg, M. Gottemoeller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Population Information Program. Population Reports, Series L, No. 11, 1999), 08/2001

    Focuses on the two most common types of violence against women: abuse of women within intimate relationships and coerced sex that can take place throughout a woman's life. It discusses the causes of gender-based violence, the impact of the violence on the individual, family and community and also what health care providers can do to assist victims of GBV. The resource also has statistics and prevalence rates of GBV from many countries.

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  • Women and armed conflict: The 42nd Commission on the Status of Women
    M. Mischke (Vrouwenberaad/WIDE. 1998 Mar.), 08/2001

    Compiles discussions and papers presented at the Commission of Women. Participants discussed various issues related to women in armed conflict, such as: women as perpetrators as well as victims; definitions of security; the role of the International Criminal Court; the experience of the girl child; and refugee women in general.

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  • Abandoning female genital cutting: Prevalence, attitudes and efforts to end the practice
    L. Creel (Washinton D.C.:Population Reference Bureau, 2001)

    This 34-page report examines survey data on female genital cutting from nine countries (Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic (CAR), Egypt, Eritrea, Kenya, Mali, Sudan, Tanzania, and Yemen) and discusses approaches for encouraging communities to abandon genital cutting. The author finds reports that in some countries there is a striking contrast between high prevalence of genital cutting and low approval for the practice and that this gap between practice and attitudes may provide opportunities for intervention, especially in Burkina Faso, CAR, Eritrea, and Kenya. Conversely, the high prevalence and persistent strong approval for FGC in other countries like Egypt, Mali and Sudan may require different interventions.

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  • Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence
    (UNHCR, 2005)

    This report, prepared a year after the joint communique was issued, assesses the extant to which the Government of the Sudan has lived up to its commitments with regard to investigating and punishing sexual violence in Darfur, and in bringing such violence to an end.

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  • Addressing Gender Violence in a Reproductive and Sexual Health Program in Venezuela
    Alessandra C. Guedes, Lynne Stevens, Judith F. Helzner, Susana Medina (Washington DC: Population Council, 2002)

    A chapter in "Responding to Cairo: Case Studies of Changing Practice in Reproductive Health and Family Planning," Nicole Haberland and Diana Measham, eds. (Population Council, 2002). It tells the story of how the staff at the Asociaci￳n Civil de Planificaci￳n Familiar (PLAFAM)  IPPF/WHR's member association in Venezuela  came to recognize the effect that women's social context has on its clients' sexual and reproductive health and learned to meet the needs of victims of violence.

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  • Adverse Health and Social Outcomes of Sexual Coercion: Experiences of young women in developing countries
    (Population Council, 2004)

    Although evidence from developing countries is limited, what is available suggests that significant numbers of young women have experienced coercive sex. Studies in diverse settings in Africa, Asia and Latin America reveal that forced sexual initiation and experiences are not uncommon in all of these settings.

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  • Aftermath, The
    Sheila Meintjes, Anu Pillay, Meredeth Turshen, eds (London: Zed Books, 2001)
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  • Aftermath: Effects of conflict on internally displaced women in Georgia
    T. Buck, A. Morton, et al. (Washington, DC: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working Paper 310))

    Examines the economic, social and political effects of conflicts in Georgia on internally displaced women and their families, and identifies a few lessons drawn from the Georgian experience that might be considered by the international community in developing programs for internally displace women and families in similar situations.

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  • Aftermath: The impact of conflict on women in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    M. Walsh (Washington D.C.: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working paper 302))

    This report examines the impact of conflict on gender in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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  • Aftermath: Women and gender issues in post-conflict Guatemala
    V. Garrard-Burnett (Washington DC: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working paper 311))

    Addresses the effects of Guatemala's political violence in the 1980s on women and gender issues in the country.

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  • Aftermath: Women and women's organizations in post-conflict Cambodia
    K. Kumar, H. Baldwin, J. Benjamin (Washington DC: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working Paper 307))

    Focuses on the impact of conflict on women in Cambodia and the emergence and role of women's organizations in addressing gender issues associated with conflict, and discusses the nature of assistance provided to them by the international community.

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  • Aftermath: Women in post-genocide Rwanda
    C. Newbury, H. Baldwin (Washington DC: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working paper 303))

    Focuses on the impact of the genocide in Rwanda on women - how the conflict affects their economic, social and political roles and responsibilities; their responses to the conflict; and many major problems and challenges they face today.

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  • Aftermath: Women's organizations in post-conflict El Salvador
    L. Stephen, S. Cosgrove, K. Ready (Washington DC: USAID Center for Development and Evaluation, 2000 (Working paper 309))

    Looks at the emergence and role of women's organizations in post-conflict El Salvador, and provides suggestions to international donor agencies for planning and putting into effect development assistance.

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  • Any Progress for the Lives of Women in Burma since Beijing?
    (Women's League of Burma, 2005)
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  • Armed Conflict and Trafficking in Women: A Desk Study
    Sonje Wolte (Eschborn: GTZ, 2004)

    Tho objective of this study is examine prevelant forms of trafficking in women during armed conflict and in post-conflict situations. It is based on the analysis of reports of international government and non-governmental organizations, as well newspaper articles and academic publications. I addition, experts and representatives of different NGOs and international organizations were interviewed. Regions analyzed include: Sierra Leone; Colombia; Afghanistan; Iraq; Korea R; Bosnia-Herzegovina.

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  • Asian Development Bank, Country Gender Assessments

    This series provides information on the status and role of women in developing member countries. It also assists ADB staff in country programming work, project design, and implementation.

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  • Beyond Conflict Prevention: How Women Prevent Violence and Build Sustainable Peace
    Camille Conaway, Anjalina Sen (Global Action to Prevent War, WILPF, 2005)
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  • Beyond Gender: Illegal Laws, Ethnicity, Armed Conflicts and Trafficking - Presentation at the 13th Workshop of the Framework on Regional Cooperation for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Asia-Pacific Region Beijing, Peoples Republic of C
    (Asian Center for Human Rights, 2005)

    This presentation of the ACHR at the 13th Workshop of the Framework on Regional Cooperation for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Asia-Pacific Region covers the following topics: - Introduction. - How the national laws contribute to trafficking? - Discriminatory nationality law, restriction on freedom of movement and risks of trafficking in Thailand. - Restrictions on internal migration and risks of trafficking in China. - Ethnicity, armed conflicts and trafficking. - Lack of law enforcement strategy - Conclusion and recommendations

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  • Beyond Victimhood: Women's Peacebuilding in Sudan, Congo and Uganda
    (International Crisis Group, 2006)

    Peacebuilding cannot succeed if half the population is excluded from the process. Crisis Group's research in Sudan, Congo (DRC)and Uganda suggests that peace agreements, post-conflict reconstruction, and governance do better when women are involved.

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  • Body Politics and the Rwandan Crisis
    Erin Baines (Third World Quarterly, 24(3): 479-493, 2003)

    This article examines 'micro-level' testimonial evidence collected in human rights reports to shed light on one particularly under-theorised realm and approach, that of gender and the politics of the body. I suggest that the 1994 genocide was an extreme attempt not only to purge the 'Hutu nation' of the Tutsi, but also to actively engender a vision of the 'Hutu nation' in the minds of an otherwise diverse and fragmented local populace. Women's bodies, gender and sexuality became highly contested terrains for scripting this vision of an imagined nation.

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  • Born to Risk: Violence against Girls in Africa
    D. Mugawe; A. Powell ( Pension Research Council, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania , 2005)

    This report aims to enrich work on violence against children in Africa and to provide a framework for action. It provides strong foundations for future action by exploring the concept of violence and identifying what makes African girls especially vulnerable to various forms of violence.

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  • Broken Bodies, Broken Dreams: Violence against Women Exposed
    Jeanne Ward with J. Kirk, L. Weinzimer, C. Horwood, Z. Flood (Nairobi: OCHA/IRIN, 2005)

    The book offers a powerful testimony, through photographs and text, of the different types of violence that define the everyday existence of countless women and girls. It examines the nature of this violence through the cycle of women's lives, including discrimination at birth and at school, domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, servitude and abusive cultural pratices.

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  • Building a Gender and Age-Sensitive Approach to Refugee Protection
    Bela Hovy (Migration Information Source, 2003)

    For a variety of reasons, women and girls are facing special risks during conflict and displacement. Raising public and programmatic awareness of the special needs of women and children has been critical to ensuring that resources and responses have been appropriately deployed.

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  • Burqa Politics: The Plights of Women in Afghanistan
    Lina Abirafeh (Chronogram, 2004)

    Visions of Afghan women throwing off their burqas in the name of freedom helped fuel the Bush administration's case for war against Afghanistan. Just how free are women in today's Afghanistan? Was removing their burqas ever really the issue?

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  • Burundi: Rape- The hidden human rights abuse.
    (Amnesty International, 2004.)

    Like all human rights abuses in Burundi, rape has become an entrenched feature of the crisis because the perpetrators - whether government soldiers, members of armed political groups, or private individuals - have largely not been brought to justice. Not one of the women whose cases are detailed in this report has been able to successfully pursue a criminal prosecution for rape. Rape has, however, also been exacerbated by widespread discrimination against women and its consequences have been aggravated by poverty, internal displacement and a failing health system.

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  • Casualties of War: Women's Bodies, Women's Lives: Stop Crimes against Women in Armed Conflict
    (Amnesty International, 2004)
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  • Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Femal Genital Mutilation/Cutting
    (UNICEF, 2005)

    The text presents strategies to support communities to abandon FGM.

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  • Climate of Fear: Sexual Violence and Abduction of Women and Girls in Baghdad
    (HRW, 2003)

    HRW interviewed rape and abduction victims and witnesses, Iraqi police and health professionals, and U.S. military police and civil affairs officers, and learned of twenty-five credible allegations of rape or abduction. The report found that police officers gave low priority to allegations of sexual violence and abduction, that the police were under-resourced, and that victims of sexual violence confronted indifference and sexism from Iraqi law enforcement personnel. The report also found that U.S. military police were not filling the gap when Iraqi police were unwilling or unable to conduct serious investigations of sexual violence and abduction.

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  • Colombia: "Scarred bodies, hidden crimes": Sexual Violence against women in the armed conflict
    (Amnesty International, 2004)
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  • Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II
    Yoshioaki Yoshimi (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000)
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  • Common grounds: Violence against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations
    Indai Sajor, ed (Manila: ASCENT, 1999)

    The text highlights the ways in which women have been silenced during conflict and where they continue to be in the history of war: in comfort houses, in brothels, in mass graves, in military sex camps. The essays within focus on various conflicts while advocating for a redefinition of war crimes to include sexual and gender-based violations that reflect women's lived experiences during conflict.

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  • Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process: Patterns, Profiles and Health Consequences of Sexual Exploitation in Five Countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States), A
    Janice G. Raymond, Jean DCunha, Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin, H. Patricia Hynes, Zoraida Ramirez Rodriguez, Aida Santos (Coalition against Trafficking in Women International, 2002)

    This document reports on the situation of trafficked women during migration, and examines the structural factors responsible for the increase in sex trafficking worldwide.

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  • Conflict Documentation: Marginalised Women
    Vanessa Griffin, ed. (Asian and Pacific Development Center, 2000.)

    This booklet is a documentation on refugee women and women in situations of armed conflict in Asia-Pacific region. The report represents women in situations of armed conflict that have been marginalized and almost forgotten in regional NGO and GO deliberations on the Beijing Platform for Action. It is a response to the urgent need to recognize and give voice to women in these situations and to address the conditions and human rights violations affecting them.

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  • Constructions of Masculinities and Violence aganist Women
    Therese Blanchet with Hannan Biswas, Masuda A. Lucky (CARE, 2001)

    In Bangladesh sexual violence within marriage is often seen as a shameful but tolerated ill. Although anger about violence against women (VAW) is profound among many Bangladeshi women, numerous barriers prevent them from speaking out against gender-based violence. Few public subsidies or donor funds have been allocated to support battered wives in Bangladesh, and no services have been set up to reach out to violent husbands. This paper gives a voice to the women and men who are suffering, perpetrating or witnessing gender-based violence in Bangladesh by documenting the case histories of women victims of violence and of men who are known to be violent, mostly with their wives. It shows how violence between marital partners erupts; how problems are dealt with, resolved, or left unresolved; and looks at the consequences such situations entail for the women and their families

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  • Corps des Femmes Comme Champ de Bataille Durant la Guerre en R←publique D←mocratique du Congo, Le: Violences sexuelles contre les femmes et les filles au Sud-Kivu (1996-2003)
    (International Alert, R←seau des Femmes pour un D←veloppement Associatif, R←seau des Femmes pour la D←fense des Droits et la Paix, 2005)

    Combatants on all sides of the conflict in Eastern DRC have been using sexual violence purposefully asa weapon of war. Acts of sexual violence continue to be committed with unprecedented cruelty, the perpetrators inflicting the most humiliating and degrading treatment on their victims that they can devise. This report is based on interviews with 492 women and 50 soldiers in Eastern DRC. It documents the violation of womens human rights during the war and examines the socio-cultural roots of this violence and the different forms it takes. Available in English under Women's Bodies as a Battleground: Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls During the War in the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Kivu (1996-2003).

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  • Crime or Custom? Violence against Women in Pakistan
    (New York: Human Rights Watch; 1999)

    Discusses the background and scope of violence against women in Pakistan, including Pakistan's obligations under international law, state and systemic responses (or gaps in delivery), and the response of the international community.

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  • Crushing Burden of Rape: Sexual Violence in Darfur, The
    (MSF, 2005)
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  • Culture and Choice: lessons from survivors of gender violence in Zimbabwe
    A. Armstrong (Harare: Violence Against Women in Zimbabwe Research Project, 1998)
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  • Cycles of Violence - Gender Relations and Armed Conflict
    Judy El-Bushra, Ibrahim M.G. Sahi (Agency for Co-operation and Research in Development, 2005)

    This book describes the ACORD research project "Gender-sensitive programme design and planning in conflict-affected situations" which was conducted in 2000 and 2001. It has been compiled from original contributions from the research team. Countries of focus include: Uganda, Sudan, Somalia, Angola, and Mali.

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  • Darfur - Assault on Survival: A Call for Security, Justice and Restitution
    (Physicians for Human Rights, 2006)

    In May 2004, PHR collected eyewitness testimony from dozens of Darfurian refugees in Chad and found ample evidence of an organized attempt to destroy non-Arab groups. PHR called the actions of the perpetrators genocide, and identified indicators of genocide, including consistent patterns of targeting non-Arabs, destruction of villages, pursuing non-Arabs with intent to make them leave their villages, raping non-Arab women, and forcing everyone out of their villages into hostile terrain. PHR returned to the Chad/Sudan border in 2005, compiling information about the lives of the affected before the attacks, about the attacks themselves  the scale and scope of destruction, the theft and torching of property and possessions and about their current existence in the refugee camps.

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  • Darfur: Rape as a Weapon of War: Sexual Violence and its Consequences
    (Amnesty International, 2004)

    In March 2004, Darfur, western Sudan, was described by the then United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator in Sudan, Mukesh Kapila, as the world's greatest humanitarian crisis". Humanitarian organisations operating in Darfur are warning about malnutrition and famine in the region. Todays "worst humanitarian crisis" has been directly caused by war crimes and crimes against humanity for which the Sudanese government is responsible. Massive human rights violations committed in the region include: extra-judicial executions, unlawful killings of civilians, torture, rapes, abductions, destruction of villages and property, looting of cattle and property, the destruction of the means of livelihood of the population attacked and forced displacement. These human rights violations have been committed in a systematic manner by the Janjawid, often in coordination with Sudanese soldiers and the Sudanese Air Force, with total impunity, and have targeted mainly members of the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups and other agro-pastoralist groups living in Darfur. Many of the crimes committed in Darfur constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity.

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  • Democratic Republic of Congo Mass rape: Time for remedies.
    (Amnesty International, 2004)

    The provision of state health care in DRC is based on a cost-recovery system, in which the population is expected to pay for consultations and treatment. For most people, accessing health care is therefore either entirely unaffordable or involves making unacceptable choices between, for example, health and childrens education (where fees are also demanded) or sale of essential family assets such as livestock. In the DRC, it is estimated that there are several million people living with HIV/AIDS, and a considerable effort will be needed to provide care and treatment for even a small part of this number. Care and treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS are practically non-existent in the country. In addition to the fact that most health centres in the east are not operational, life-prolonging anti-retroviral drugs are almost entirely inexistent and treatment is not generally available for opportunist infections that co-exist with HIV/AIDS. Most health staff have received no training or information on AIDS. People who are sick are referred to their families for care, although they are often rejected by family members because of the stigma attached to the disease. All rape victims say they are afraid that they may have contracted an STI or HIV, but it is very difficult to know the proportion of victims who are HIV-positive because there is no policy for general systematic voluntary testing.

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  • Domestic violence against women and girls
    (Florence: UNICEF; 2000)

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  • Domestic violence in Cambodia: A study of health care providers perceptions and responses
    S. Watmough (Asia Pacific forum on women, law and development 1999; 133(11))

    This qualitative study provides information on attitudes and awareness regarding domestic violence among health professionals. It focuses on interventions and preventative support mechanisms which health care providers can develop using existing resources. This study also offers suggestions for the development of new client focused responses of support for domestic violence victims. It is written in both English and Khmer language. Note: The APWLD website provides contains a number of articles on gender issues in the region of Asia, including region-specific training modules.

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  • Double Jeopardy: Abuse of Ethnic Women's Human Rights in Burma
    Brenda Belak (Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 24, Iss. 3, 2000.)
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  • Dying of sadness: gender, sexual violence and the HIV epidemic
    P. Gordon, K. Crehan (Proceedings of the SEPED Conference, Paper Series #1; United Nations; 1997. Available online)

    This overview of literature suggests that, within the context of gender and the HIV epidemic, sexual violence is a complex phenomenon with multiple determinants, consequences and manifestations.ᅠ

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  • Early marriages: child spouses
    (Innocenti Digest/UNICEF, No.7, March 2001)

    This digest looks at the reasons for the perpetuation of early marriage, and its possible increase in populations under stress. It also looks at the harmful impacts of the practice and offers positive guidelines to end the practice of early marriage.

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  • EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia

    Comprehensive database with more than 90 selected EC/UNFPA-funded information, education and communication (IEC) materials produced in more than 40 projects of the EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia. Materials are targeted at addressing and approaching reproductive health and range from karaoke audiocassettes, videos, caps and t-shirts, to research findings and training materials.

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  • Educating men in South Africa on gender issues
    A. Levack (SIECUS report: Global perspectives on gender, sexual health and HIV/AIDS; 29(5), 2001)

    The article discusses the PPASA Men as Partners Program (MAP) in South Africa, which provides community-based education to groups of m en. The MAP educational workshops explore gender issues and their relation to reproductive health, particularly HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. The article examines the various strategies, successes, and challenges of the program, concluding with findings from a recent external evaluation which found that men participating in MAP workshops demonstrated positive changes in attitudes towards gender equity, violence and reproductive health.

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  • Effect of power in sexual relationships on sexual and reproductive health: An examination of the evidence, The
    A.K. Blanc (Studies in Family Planning 2001; 32(3):189-213)

    Reviews what has been learned to date about the role of gender-based power in sexual relationships in determining sexual and reproductive health outcomes. A framework for assessing the relationship between power relations and reproductive health is outlined and measurement issues are critically discussed. A summary is included of the main types of intervention approaches that have been implemented, as are a discussion of the programmatic, methodological and ethical implications of the findings and recommendations for further experimentation and research. Although many challenges remain, results to date suggest that when the role of gender-based power is made an integral feature of sexual and reproductive health programs, there is a considerable payoff for both women and men.

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  • Embodiment of terror: Gendered violence in peacetime and wartime in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina
    M. Olujic (Medical Anthropology Quarterly 1998; 12(1): 31-50)

    Discusses how gendered violence during war has its roots in peacetime aggression. During war, the individual body is transformed into the social body, which must be destroyed and dominated. Rape as a tactic of war is horribly effective because the concepts of shame and honor are associated with female sexuality. Because the woman's shame and honor are, by extension, her family's shame and honor, rape has a powerful, negative effect on families as well as victims.

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  • Empowering Women in the Great Lakes Region: Violence, Peace, and Women's Leadership
    Aili Mari Trapp (UNESCO, 2005)

    Provides background information regarding violence against women and conflicts in Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Uganda.

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  • Enhancing the use of emergency contraception in a refugee setting: Findings from a baseline survey in Kakuma refugee camps, Kenya
    E. Muia, F. Fikree, J. Olenja (New York: International Rescue Committee and Population Council, 2000.)

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  • Entering the Labyrinth: Coming to grips with gender war zones: The case of South Africa
    H. Moffet (INSTRAW working paper #5)

    South Africa has both one of the world's most progressive and humanitarian Constitutions, and the worst figures for gender and sexual violence for a country not at war. In fact, these figures suggest an unacknowledged gender civil war. This paper focuses on stories told about sexual violence and specifically rape in South African society that explain, endorse and perpetuate the problem. The author looks particularly closely at the treatment of the rapist: how he is either erased from these stories, making rape a perpetrator-less crime, or how he is demonized and turned into a monster no "normal" men can relate to or identify with.

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  • Ethnicity, Gender and Violence in Kenya
    P. Mwangi Kagwanja (Forced Migration Review, 2000: 9. pg 22-5.)

    This discusses how the ethnically-discriminatory nature of Kenya's refugee policy plays a role in encouraging sexual violence against refugee women.

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  • Everyday Victims: Civilians in the Burundian War
    (HRW, 2003)

    The Burundian military and armed opposition forces have committed serious war crimes, including civilian killings and rapes. The recent political agreement between the major parties in Burundis ten-year civil war should not have granted immunity from prosecution for such blatant and widespread crimes. This report documents massacres and rapes of civilians and attacks on civilian property between April and November, when the government and the Forces for the Defense of Democracy (FDD), the main rebel group signed an peace accord guaranteeing all sides provisional immunity from prosecution for war crimes.

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  • Female circumcision in Sudan: Future prospects and strategies for eradication
    M.M. Islam, M.M. Uddin (International Family Planning Perspectives 2001 Jun; 27(2)::71-76)

    Presentation of results in which approximately 1000 women in three areas of Sudan (Haj-Yousif, Shendi and Juba) were surveyed. Data results presented on the prevalence of the three types of circumcision, their social and demographic correlates, women's attitudes toward the practice and their perception of their husbands' attitudes.

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  • Female circumcision: Rite of passage or violation of rights?
    Frances A. Althaus (International Family Planning Perspectives 1997; 23(3))

    Specifically addresses types of female circumcision, consequences of excision, its social context, why efforts to eliminate the practice have been unsuccessful, and future prospects.

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  • Female empowerment and adolescent demographic behavior
    A. Gage (1997)

    The focus of this presentation is on the sexual behaviour and contraceptive use in Sub Saharan Africa. The presentation deals with power dynamics and how adolescents experience power.

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  • Feminists under Fire: Exchanges across War Zones
    W. Giles, M. de Alwis, E. Klein, N. Silva, eds. (Toronto: Between the Line, 2003)
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  • Firewood, Violence Against Women, and Hard Choices in Kenya
    Mary Anne Fitzgerald (Washington, DC: Refugees International.ᅠ 1998)

    This article describes the high rate of violence against Somali refugee women in Kenya that occurs when they leave the camps to search for firewood. During a one-month period there were 24 sexual assaults on women ranging from 10 years old to 50 years old. Many were gang raped. The women were also shot, beaten, knifed, severely beaten and robbed. The article also reports the results of a six-month survey, begun in February 1993, which showed that 192 cases of rape of Somali refugees were documented. Perpetrators are Somali refugees living in the camps, Kenyan bandits, and to a lesser extent, Somali militias who cross the border from Somalia on raids. UNHCR estimates that, because of the severe stigma attached to a women who has been raped, the actual figures could be 10 times greater that the number of reported rape cases. Often, women who are raped are divorced by their husbands and outcast from their families. Women may turn to prostitution in order to survive. Young girls who were virgins at the time of the rape have their legs tied together for days in the belief that it will restore the girl's virginity. The article continues on to outline a proposed program to cultivate trees in the community for firewood, and to provide counselors and medical and legal staff to aide women who have been sexually assaulted.

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  • Forgotten Casualties of War: Girls in armed conflict
    (Save the Children Alliance, 2005)

    This report identified a 'hidden army' or 'generation' of girls, some as young as eight, who are abducted against their will to live life in the army. The roles of the girls vary from being actual soldiers through to serving as porters, cleaners and cooks. Almost all are forced to serve as sex slaves or 'wives'.

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  • Forms and Sources of Violence In Kenya's Refugee Camps
    Jeff Crisp (Refugee Survey Quarterly, 2000; 19: 54 - 70.)
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  • Forsaken people: Case studies of the internally displaced, The
    R. Cohen, F. Deng, editors (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press; 1998)

    This book contains case studies of ten countries/regions that have suffered severe problems of internal displacement: Burundi, Rwanda, Liberia, and the Sudan in Africa; the former Yugoslavia and the Caucasus in Europe; Tajikistan and Sri Lanka in Asia; and Colombia and Peru in the Americas. The editors and contributors discuss the historical factors leading to internal displacement, the efforts made at the national, regional and international levels to remedy the problem, and recommendations for further action. Full-text available online at the URL above or can order this publication for US$22.95 at www.brookings.edu/press/books/forsaken.htm

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  • Fuel Provision and Gender-based Violence: Fuel Efficiency as a Provention Strategy
    Stephanie Zeibell (UNIFEM, 2005)
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  • GBV Tools Manual: For assessment and program design, monitoring and evaluation in conflict affected settings
    RHRC (New York: Women's Commission, 2003)
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  • Gender and armed conflicts: Challenges for decent work, gender equity and peace building agendas and programmes
    E. Date-bah, M. Walsh, et al. (International Labour Organization, Recovery and Reconstruction Department, Geneva, Switzerland; 2001.)

    This document attempts to provide an analytical synthesis of research and insights based upon country studies, undertaken by the ILO between 1996 and 2000. It has been prepared to guide policy formulation, effective pursuit of gender-sensitive programming, decent work and other activities, to stimulate and advance current debate on women and gender issues in the wake of conflict. The four post-conflict countries studies presented in the document were done in Mozambique, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Guatemala and Lebanon.

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  • Gender Dimensions of Displacement
    S. Gururaja (Forced Migration Review; 9: 2000. pg. 13-6)

    Focuses on how gender awareness is essential for addressing the protection and participation rights of displaced women and girls, with a discussion of the role and results of the Beijing conferences.

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  • Gender dimensions of internal displacement: Concept paper and annotated bibliography, The
    Judy A. Benjamin, Khadija Fancy (UNICEF, Office of Emergency Programmes: Working Paper Series 1998 Nov.)

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  • Gender Profile of the Conflict in Angola
    (UNIFEM, Women, War and Peace, 2002)

    Twenty-seven years of civil war, massive displacement, drought and famine has resulted in Angola being one of the worst places to be a woman in the world. Women's health, security, and well-being have continued to deteriorate on an incomprehensible scale. Even as the hope for peace and stability widens, Angolan women must confront fresh challenges such as famine, resettlement, the reintegration of combatants and an increasing prevalance of HIV/AIDS. These challenges are presenting themselves against a backdrop of destroyed infrastructure and an economy crippled by decades of fighting and sanctions.

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  • Gender Profile of the Conflict in Columbia
    (UNIFEM & Women, War, Peace, 2003)
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  • Gender Violence in Africa: African Women's Responses
    D. Green (Hampshire: Palgrave, 2001)

    The text analyzes acts of gender violence as they occur in one region, to uncover the dynamics that both perpetuate the abuses and enable women to survive them. The author compares the effects of gender violence throughout sub-Saharan Africa to illustrate the range of experiences between and within the countries of the region. The study focuses not only on the abuses themselves, or describing how African women can be saved, but also looks at African women's responses in the study of gender violence.

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  • Gender, Conflict and Development
    T. Bouta, G. Frerks, and I. Bannon (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006)

    This book highlights the gender dimensions of conflict, organised around major relevant themes such as female combatants, sexual violence, formal and informal peace processes, the legal framework, work, the rehabilitation of social services and community-driven development. It analyses how conflict changes gender roles and the policy options that might be considered to build on positive aspects of these roles while minimising adverse changes.

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  • Gender, conflict and development - Volume II: Case studies: Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosovo, Algeria, Somalia, Guatemala, and Eritrea
    B. Byrne, R. Marcus, T. Powers-Stevens (United Kingdom: Bridge; 1996)

    Reports in this folder are available in PDF or Microsoft Word format, and include topics on gender and conflict, post-conflict, and emergency and humanitarian assistance. Additional links to other reports include issues of gender, pertaining to economics, health, sectoral issue, concepts and methods, poverty, institutionalizing gender, as well as certain country profiles.
    This report was prepared at the request of the Netherlands' Special Programme on WID, Ministry of Foreign Affairs on a conference on gender, conflict and development of the Vrouwenberaad Ontwikkelingssamenwerking.

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  • Gender, conflict and development. Volume I: Overview
    B. Byrne (United Kingdom: Bridge; 1996)

    Reports in this folder are available in PDF or Microsoft Word format, and include topics on gender and conflict, post-conflict, and emergency and humanitarian assistance. Additional links to other reports include issues of gender, pertaining to economics, health, sectoral issue, concepts and methods, poverty, institutionalizing gender, as well as certain country profiles.

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  • Gender, Conflict, and Peacekeeping
    Dyan Mazurana, Angela Raven-Roberts, Jane Parpart, eds (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, Inc., 2005)
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  • Gender, Conflict, and Peacekeeping
    D. Mazurana, A. Raven-Roberts, and J. Parpart, eds. (Oxford & Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield. 2005)

    Peacekeeping has become a major international undertaking throughout the world, from Africa to the Americas, from Europe to Southeast Asia. Yet until now, there has been no systematic analysis of the key role of gender in post-cold war conflicts and of post-conflict peacekeeping efforts. This groundbreaking volume explores how gender has become a central factor in shaping current thinking about the causes and consequences of armed conflict, complex emergencies, and reconstruction. Drawing on expertise ranging from the highest levels of international policymaking down to the daily struggle to implement peacekeeping operations, this work represents the full span of knowledge and experience about international intervention in local crises. Presenting a rich array of examples from Angola, Bosnia Herzegovina, East Timor, El Salvador, the former Yugoslavia, Guatemala, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, and Serbia, the authors offer important insights for future peacekeeping and humanitarian missions.

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  • Gender-Based Violence
    Geraldine Terry, Joanna Hoare (eds.) (Oxfam, 2007)

    This book brings together some of the most interesting and innovative work being done to tackle gender-based violence in various sectors, world regions, and socio-political contexts. Articles cover a wide range of manifestations of gender-based violence, including femicide, or the murder of women because they are women, domestic and sexual violence, female genital mutilation or cutting, the sexual exploitation of girls at school, and trafficking for prostitution. The case studies are drawn from South and East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Central America, and a detailed list of resources completes the volume.

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  • Gender-based Violence Research Initiatives in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-Conflict Settings: Lessons Learned
    Cari Clark (Rosemary Rogers Working Paper Series, 2003)
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  • Gender-Based Violence: A Price Too High
    (UNFPA, 2005)

    Highlighting the high costs to women and society, Chapter 7 of the 2005 State of World Population report documents the high social, emotional and economic costs of gender-based violence.

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  • Gender-Related Prosecution and International Protection
    Erin Patrick (Migration Policy Institute, 2004)
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  • Giving men choices: A Rozan project with the police force in Pakistan
    M. Rashid (INSTRAW, 2001)

    This working paper offers a comprehensive overview of an NGO-implemented project (Rozan, a local Islamabad, Pakistan-based NGO) to sensitize the police force to gender roles and gender-based violence. It gives a detailed description of the project

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  • Gynecological complaints and war traumas: A study from Zenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina during the war
    A. Frljak, S. Cengic, M. Hauser, B. Schei (Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1997; 76: 350-354)

    Retrospective study of 486 medical records of consecutive gynecological consultations was conducted in four different periods during 1993/94 at a women's therapy center.

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  • Hidden Consequence of War, The
    Katie Tell (EngenderHealth, 2005)

    Despite the tragedy of traumatic fistula, the condition much like the women who suffer from it has received little attention from the international health community. In response to this silence, a partnership including EngenderHealth/the ACQUIRE Project, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, the Ethiopian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Network of Women for Victims of Sexual Violence convened the first-ever international meeting on the issue.

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  • HIV and partner violence: Implications for HIV voluntary counseling and testing programs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    S. Maman, J. Mbwambo, M. Hogan, G. Kilonzo, M. Sweat, E. Weiss (Population Council, 2001)

    Building on previous research, this study explores the links between HIV infection, serostatus disclosure, and partner violence among women attending the Muhimbili Health Information Center, a voluntary counseling and testing (VTC) clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The key findings of the study are:

    • Many women lack autonomy to make decisions about HIV testing.
    • Disclosure to partners by HIV-positive women has increased over time but is still significantly less than that for HIV-negative women.
    • Partner violence is a serious problem among many female VCT clients.
    • A small proportion of women who disclosed their serostatus to partners reported a negative reaction.
    • Women's HIV status is strongly associated with partner violence.

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  • HIV-Positive Women Report More Lifetime Partner Violence: Findings From a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    S Maman, J Mbwambo, N Hogan, G Kilonzo, J Campbell, E Weiss, M Sweat (Am J Public Health 92 (8), 2002)

    Objectives. Experiences of partner violence were compared between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Methods. Of 340 women enrolled, 245 (72%) were followed and interviewed 3 months after HIV testing to estimate the prevalence and identify the correlates of violence. Results. The odds of reporting at least 1 violent event was significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (physical violence odds ratio [OR] = 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 5.63; sexual violence OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.73). Odds of reporting partner violence was 10 times higher among younger (< 30 years) HIV-positive women than among younger HIV-negative women (OR = 9.99; 95% CI = 2.67, 37.37). Conclusions. Violence is a risk factor for HIV infection that must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches.

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  • Hopes Betrayed: Trafficking of Women and Girls to Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovinia for Forced Prostitution
    (HRW, 2002)

    This report documents how local Bosnian police officers facilitate the trafficking of women by creating false documents; visiting brothels to partake of free sexual services; and sometimes engaging in trafficking directly. Local corruption and the complicity of international officials in Bosnia have allowed a trafficking network to flourish, in which women are tricked, threatened, physically assaulted and sold as chattel.

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  • Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law in to Local Justice
    Sally Engle Merry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2006)
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  • Human Rights Watch World Report 2002: Women's Human Rights

    Sections of interest include violence against women, human rights developments, women in conflict, trafficking, women's status in the family, and the role of the international community.

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  • Humanitarian Assistance: Protecting Refugee Women and Girls Remains a Significant Challenge
    (GAO, 2003)

    Addresses protection measures in regards to UN Peacekeeper and humanitarian abuses in refugee and IDP situations. Also describes US government's efforts to support adequate protection for vulnerable populations.

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  • Humanity Denied: Systematic Violations of Women's Rights in Afghanistan
    (HRW, 2001)

    This report discusses the status of women under the Taliban and immediately post-9/11.

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  • If Not Now, When? Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced and Post-Conflict Settings
    Jeanne Ward (Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium (RHRC), 2002)

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a baseline narrative account of some of the major issues, programming efforts, and gaps in programming related to the prevention of and response to GBV among conflict-affected populations worldwide. The report is composed of twelve country profiles: three each for Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

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  • Impact of Conflict on Women and Girls in West and Central Africa and the UNICEF Response, The
    Sherrill Whittington with Rima Salah and Christine Muhigana (UNICEF, 2006)

    The West and Central Africa region has been racked by conflict over the past decade. Several countries - C￴te d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and Sierra Leone - are still embroiled in, or emerging from, long-term warfare. Women and girls in these countries are most vulnerable to gender-based violence and need special protection measures. This first-of-its-kind study by UNICEF on the situation of war-affected girls and women in the region highlights innovative programmes being implemented with partners to address the impact of conflict, and recommends how UNICEF can more proactively champion the rights of girls - particularly adolescent girls.

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  • In War as in Peace: Sexual Violence and Women's Status
    LaShawn R. Jefferson (Anesty International, 2004)

    More than ten years after the commencement of wars in the former Yugoslavia, and almost a decade after the Rwandan genocideconflicts notorious for attacks on women and girlscombatants continue to use sexual violence as a tactic of war to terrorize and control civilian populations. Although there has been increasing international attention to sexual violence in armed conflict, two essential features have persisted. First, it is routinely used on a large scale in most wars against women (though much less frequently, men and boys too are sometimes targeted for sexual attack). Second, perpetrators of sexual violence continue to enjoy near complete impunity. Over the past decade, the number of successful prosecutions has been paltry compared to the scale of the crimes.

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  • Indian Ocean Tsunami: Special Challenges for Women Survivors, The
    Robert Lalasz (Population Reference Bureau, 2005)

    As the death toll continues to rise above 150,000 from last month's Indian Ocean tsunami, women who survived the disaster now face difficult and special challengessuch as getting access to maternal and reproductive health care, protecting themselves from sexual abuse in refugee settings, and perhaps taking on new roles as primary economic providers for their families.

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  • International Justice Failing Rape Victims
    (Institute for War & Peace Reporting, The Hague, 2007)

    Despite significant strides in international law, many sexual violence crimes are going unpunished because of flawed investigations and prosecutions. Covers the conflicts in the Balkans, DRC, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Sudan.

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  • Intimate Enemy: Gender Violence and Reproductice Health, The
    (Panos Briefing, No. 27, 1998)
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  • Intimate Partner Violence: Results from a National Gender-Based Violence Study in Malawi
    E. Pelser, L. Gondwe, C. Mayamba, T. Mhango, M. Phiri, P. Burton (National Statistical Office, 2005)
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  • Intrastate conflict and gender
    (Gender Matters Information Bulletin 2000 Dec; (9))

    This investigative report by USAID was initiated to generate a body of empirically grounded knowledge to inform the policy and programmatic interventions of USAID and other international donor agencies.

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  • Israel and the Occupied Territories: Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden
    (Amnesty International, 2005)

    The report is part of the global Amnesty International campaign to Stop Violence Against Women. The report shows that the impact of the conflict on Palestinian women in the West Bank and Gaza Strip has lead to widespread violations of their rights  both civil and political such as the right to life, liberty and security of the person as well as economic, social and cultural rights- such as the right to health, housing and education. It highlights some of the main violations to which women have been subjected in the context of increased political violence, combined with existing and heightened pressures they face in a patriarchal society.

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  • Just Die Quietly: Domestic Violence and Women's Vulnerability to HIV in Uganda
    (Human Rights Watch, 2003)

    The accounts in this report reveal that Ugandan women are becoming infected with HIV, and will eventually die of AIDS, because the state is failing to protect them from domestic violence. Human Rights Watch interviewed Ugandan women who confront an environment that sustains unequal power relations, contend with persistent societal pressure to tolerate violence, and whose husbands and extended family routinely subject them to coercion and emotional abuse.

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  • Kenyan Women Speak on the Proposed Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission
    (Urgent Action Fund- Africa, 2003)

    This report contains a summary of discussions at a one day forum that was convened by the Urgent Action Fund Africa in collaboration with the Federation of Women Lawyers -Kenya (FIDA- Kenya) in Nairobi on the 28th day of May 2003. We also included useful papers that formed the background reading material for the discussions and summaries of panelists presentations. The report will be presented to the Task Force on the establishment of a Truth Justice & Reconciliation commission in Kenya.

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  • Killing You is a Very Easy Thing For Us: Human Rights Abuses in Southeast Afghanistan
    (HRW, 2003)

    The report warns that violence, political intimidation, and attacks on women and girls are discouraging political participation and endangering gains made on women's rights in Afghanistan over the last year.The report documents army and police troops kidnapping Afghans and holding them for ransom in unofficial prisons; breaking into households and robbing families; raping women, girls and boys; and extorting shopkeepers and bus, truck and taxi drivers. The report also describes political organizers, journalists and media editors being threatened with death, arrested and harassed by army, police and intelligence agents.

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  • Kosova Women's Network

    Recently launched website and e-mail newsletter established to strengthen network of women's groups within Kosova and to disseminate information regarding women's issues in Kosova throughout the world. Recent e-mail newsletter discussed the importance of the international community's role in eradicating the trafficking of women from Kosova and helping to curb violence against women in the province.

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  • Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of "Ethnic Cleansing"
    (HRW, 2000)

    Human Rights Watch began investigating the use of rape and other forms of sexual violence by all sides in the conflict in 1998 and continued to document rape accounts throughout the refugee crisis in 1999. The research found that rape and other forms of sexual violence were used in Kosovo in 1999 as weapons of war and instruments of systematic "ethnic cleansing." Rapes were not rare and isolated acts committed by individual Serbian or Yugoslav forces, but rather were used deliberately as an instrument to terrorize the civilian population, extort money from families, and push people to flee their homes. Rape furthered the goal of forcing ethnic Albanians from Kosovo.

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  • Listening to the SilencesWomen and War
    Helen Durham, Tracey Gurd, ed (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2005)

    Listening to the Silences: Women and War is a collection of womens voices, each exploring a unique aspect of womens experiences and changing needs during armed conflict, and the adequacy of legal and other responses to those needs. Drawing together highly personal storiesincluding those of a survivor of sexual slavery during World War II and a soldier recently returned from service in Iraqwith tight academic analyses, this book highlights the ways in which the international community at large has historically failed to listen to women. It reveals that responses to womens requirements during times of war will continue to be inadequate so long as we persist in silencing these differing perspectives and fail to take account of womens dynamic and changing needs.

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  • Lives blown apart: Crimes against women in times of conflict
    (Amnesty International, 2004)
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  • Mapping a global pandemic: Review of current literature on rape, sexual assault and sexual harassment of women consultation on sexual violence against women
    (Global Forum for Health Research 2001, Dec 5)

    This review is based on an extensive survey of recently published literature on sexual violence against women, located primarily with electronic databases. As a result, the review concentrates on the published literature, although the authors have cited some other public documents and "gray literature". The review is limited to English-language material, primarily to works published since 1995. Even with these limitations, however, the result was to create a database on sexual violence against women of over 1000 references. The review provides a clear picture of who is engaged in research on SVAW, and their fields of inquiry.

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  • Marked for Death: Rape Survivors Living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda
    (Amnesty International, 2004)

    In April 1994, Rwanda suffered one hundred days of violence, targeted at the Tutsi and moderate Hutu population. Ten years later, the consequences of the violence have not been dealt with adequately, neither by the international community nor by the Rwandan government. Survivors of violence still cry out for medical care; survivors and families of victims clamour for justice that is slow in coming. Women continue to die from diseases related to HIV/AIDS, which some of them contracted as a result of rape during the 1994 genocide and armed conflict. Survivors of rape and their families face human rights violations that themselves lead to further and overlapping violations: survivors of sexual violence may have contracted HIV/AIDS, as a result of which they and their families often face stigma, which can in turn lead to loss of employment, difficulty in asserting property rights, and a loss of civil and political rights.

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  • Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina
    A. Stiglmayer, ed (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994)

    The textcontains Stiglmayer's own two essays, one detailing the historical context of the current conflict and the other presenting the core of the book, interviews with some twenty victims of rape as well as interviews with three Serbian perpetrators. Essays investigating mass rape and war from ethnopsychological, sociological, cultural, and medical perspectives are included.

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  • Migration Magazine (June 2006)
    (International Office of Migration, 2006)

    This edition focuses on a variety of locations and situations involving GBV. The following articles are within this edition: Rachel's Story: "Life as a Dsiplaced Person in a Sudanese Camp"; "Women Bear the Brunt among a Million Displaced Afghans"; "Displacement and HIV- Another Vulnerability" (Uganda)

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  • Militarism & Women in South Asia
    Anuradha M. Chenoy (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 2002.)
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  • Mujeres al Bordo: Refugiadas Columbianas en el Ecuador (Women at the Edge: Colombian Refugees in Ecuador)
    Gloria Camacho Zambrano (UNIFEM, 2005)

    This study analyzes not only the situation of women that are legally recognized as refugees, but also the experiences of women who have been pressured to migrate by army movements because of their country situation. Spanish only.

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  • Must Boys be Boys? Ending Sexual Abuse & Exploitation in UN Peacekeeping Missions
    Sarah Martin (Washington DC: Refugees International, 2005)

    The text argues that a hyper-masculine culture has evolved within UN peacekeeping missions that breeds a tolerance for such extreme behaviors. The report calls on the UN to insure that the necessary funding and resources are made available to fully address the problem.

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  • Needs of internally displaced women and children: Principles and considerations, The
    J. Kunder (New York: UNICEF 1998.)

    Looks at the obligations and capabilities of UNICEF to serve and protect internally displaced women and children. Outlines UNICEF's strategies, which include advocacy, prevention activities, protection, and rehabilitation activities on behalf of women and children. Analyzes UNICEF's Guiding Principles and the needs of women and children. Recommends some field-level strategies, coordination, and participation possibilities.

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  • New Forms of Conflict and Violence Sexual Violence and International Law
    Malaika Rajandran (Refugee Survey Quarterly, Dec 2004; 23: 58 - 73.)
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  • No Safe Place: Burma's Army and the Rape of Ethnic Women
    Betsy Apple, Veronika Martin (Washington, DC: Refugees International, 2003)

    Through interviews with ethnic minority women, the report is able to confirm that rape is widespread, affecting women from numerous ethnic groups within Burma.

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  • Of War, Siege, and Lebanon: Women's Voices from the Middle East and South Asia
    E. Accad, P. Ilkkaracan, N. Shalhoub-Kevorkian, D. Siddiqi, Z. Zaatiri (Women for Women's Human Rights- New Ways, 2006)
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  • Operation fine girl: Rape used as a weapon of war in Sierra Leone
    G. Caldwell, executive producer/WITNESS (witness.org)

    This documentary looks at the widespread and strategic use of rape and sexual violence against women, many of them young girls and teenagers, during the decade-long civil was in Sierra Leone, the world's poorest country. "Operation Fine Girl" was a specific and targeted operation carried out by the rebels in Sierra Leone to find and abduct pretty girls and especially virgins. It tells the personal stories of four Sierra Leoneans-a young mother, a teacher, a teenage sex worker, and a boy child soldier-who were each targeted, abducted and held against their will by rebels. This documentary aired on Oxygen TV and will be licensed for international broadcast by Films Transit.

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  • Overcoming Barriers to Reproductive Healthcare in Post-Conflict Afghanistan: A Participatory Study
    (Marie Stopes International, 2004)
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  • Overcoming Violence against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem
    Michael L. Penn, Rahel Nardos (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2003.)
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  • Peace Work: Women, Armed Conflict and Negotiation
    Radhika Coomarasawmy, Dilrukshi Fonseka, eds. (New Delhi: Women Unlimited, 2004)
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  • People Trafficking: Upholding Rights and Understanding Vulnerabilities
    Couldrey, M.; Morris, T. (eds.) (Forced Migration Review (2006).)

    This edition of the Forced Migration Review covers many aspects of the vulnerabilities of the victims of forced migration. This issue looks not only at the struggles of refugees and internally displaced people, but also victims of human trafficking

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  • Planning reproductive health in conflict: a conceptual framework
    J. Busza, L. Lush (Social Science and Medicine 1999;49(2):155-71)

    This article provides a conceptual framework for planning reproductive health services for refugees and is presented for use by those involved in planning field activities. Two case studies are presented: Rwanda demonstrates the use of the framework in a relatively short but dramatic conflict, for which there was also substantial prior evidence on reproductive health status; Cambodia is used, in contrast, to demonstrate the use of the framework in a much more complex conflict which has been occurring over the last 20 years.

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  • Policy Paralysis: A Call for Action on HIV/AIDS-Related Human Rights Abuses against Women and Girls in Africa.
    (Human Rights Watch 2003)

    The report written is a detailed overview of the devastating effect the HIV/AIDS pandemic is having on the lives of women and girls in various parts of the African continent. Included are statements from women and girls that bring voice to the growing choir, awakening the world to the gendered impact of the pandemic.

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  • Post-conflict Mozambique: Womens special situation, population issues and gender perspectives: to be integrated into skills training and employment promotion
    S. Baden (United Kingdom: Bridge; 1997)

    Reports in this folder are available in PDF or Microsoft Word format, and include topics on gender and conflict, post-conflict, and emergency and humanitarian assistance. Additional links to other reports include issues of gender, pertaining to economics, health, sectoral issue, concepts and methods, poverty, institutionalizing gender, as well as certain country profiles.
    This report is the result of a consultancy for the Action Programme on Skills and Entrepreneurship in Countries Emerging from Armed Conflict, International Labour Office, in Geneva.

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  • Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone
    Lynn L. Amowitz, et al. (JAMA. 2002; 287: 513-521.)

    This report is to assess the prevalence and impact of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sierra Leone.A cross-sectional, randomized survey, using structured interviews and questionnaires, of internally displaced Sierra Leone women who were living in 3 IDP camps and 1 town, which were conducted over a 4-week period in 2001.

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  • Promising Democracy, Imposing Theocracy: Gender-Based Violence and the US War on Iraq
    Yiffat Susskind (MADRE, 2007)

    MADRE has released a groundbreaking report on the incidence, causes, and legalization of gender-based violence in Iraq since the US-led invasion. Amidst the chaos and violence of US-occupied Iraq, womenin particular those who are perceived to pose a challenge to the political project of their attackershave increasingly been targeted because they are women. Today, they are subjected to unprecedented levels of assault in the public sphere, "honor killings," torture in detention, and other forms of gender-based violence. The text documents the use of gender-based violence by Iraqi Islamists, brought to power by the US overthrow of Iraq 's secular Ba'ath regime, and highlights the role of the United States in fomenting the human rights crisis confronting Iraqi women today. A re-telling of the Iraq war from the perspective of Iraqi women illuminates the strong links between women's human rights and democratic rights in general and the Bush Administration's clear contempt for both.

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  • Protection of Internally Displaced Persons in Situations of Natural Disaster
    Walter Kalin (2005)
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  • Question of Security, A: Violence against Palestinian Women and Girls
    (Human Rights Watch, 2006)

    A significant number of women and girls in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are victims of violence perpetrated by family members and intimate partners. While there is increasing recognition of the problem and some Palestinian Authority (PA) officials have indicated their support for a more forceful response, little action has been taken to seriously address these abuses. Indeed, there is some evidence the level of violence is getting worse while the remedies available to victims are being further eroded. Based on these interviews and the other research described below, we found that two primary obstacles stand in the way of enhanced protection against domestic violence for Palestinian women and girls: discriminatory laws that condone and perpetuate such violence and the virtual absence of institutionalized policies to prevent violence, assist victims, and hold perpetrators accountable.

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  • Rape as a War Crime: Putting Policy into Practice
    Sally Hargreaves (Lancet, Volume 357, Issue 9258, pg 737, 2001)
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  • Rebuilding Rwanda: A struggle man cannot do alone - A delegation report
    (New York: Womens Commission for Refugee Women and Children; 2000)

    Report of Women's Commission delegation visit to Rwanda to assess the conditions facing women and adolescents five years after the genocide, in January, 2000.

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  • Refugee at my door: Training for police in Uganda, A
    P. Reynell (Forced Migration Review, 8:2000, pg. 35-6)

    Police officers are often the first point of contact for asylum seekers; frequently, however, they receive little or no training in refugee issues. In various countries in East Africa, organizations are attempting to address this problem. Training course and recommendations on how to proceed are included.

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  • Refugee Women
    Susan Forbes Martin (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004)
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  • Report of the mission to Rwanda on the issues of violence against women in situations of armed conflict
    R. Coomaraswamy (Geneva: UNHCHR, E/CN.4/1998/54/Add.1. 1998)

    This report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women presents alternative approaches within the UN system for improvement of the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.Specifically addresses the mission to Rwanda on the issues of violence against women in situations of armed conflict.

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  • Report on the Workshop on Conflict Transformation in Africa: African Womens Perspectives
    (International Alert, AWORD, 2002)

    The workshop on which this report is based constitutes an important step in the overall assessment of womens contributions to conflict resolution in Africa. Many conferences, seminars and meetings dealing with armed conflicts have been organised at the local, regional and continental levels. However, the workshop was not just another talking shop. Breaking with the traditional image of women as eternal victims, the workshop focused on women as social actors and their involvement in armed conflicts, not only in their search for solutions, but also as interested parties who are actively involved in conflicts as combatants.

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  • Reproduction Health for Displaced People (Forced Migration Review)
    (Forced Migration Review, 19, January 2004)

    This issue secifically focuses on gender-based violence and reproductive health issues in refugee and IDP populations.

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  • Reproductive health of war-affected populations: What do we know?
    T. McGinn (International Family Planning Perspectives 2000; 26(4))

    Comprehensive overview of research on the reproductive health of war-affected populations. It explores the impact of forced migration on reproductive health by comparing forced migrants' situations to those of settled populations. The author discusses findings on prevalence of rape and domestic violence in Kibondo district of Tanzania, Liberia, Rwanda, Dadaab and Kakuma camps in Kenya, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania and Ethiopian camps.

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  • Reproductive Health Services for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Decade of Progress
    (Inter-Agency Working Group, 2004)
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  • Responding to rape
    L. Shanks, N. Ford, M. Schull, K. de Jong (Lancet 2001; 357(9252): 304)

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  • Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years after Genocide 1994-2004: Contributions, Challenges and Way Forward, The
    John Mutamba, Jeanne Izabiliza (The Republic of Rwanda, 2005)
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  • Rwanda: "Marked for Death", rape survivors living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda
    (Amnesty International, 2004)
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  • School for Rape: The Burmese Military and Sexual Violence
    B. Apple (EarthRights International Report; 1998)

    This report seeks to make visible the structural origins of the rape of ethnic Burmese women, with particular attention paid to the institution that nurtures the rapists, the Burmese army. The report is based on primary research consisting of original interviews with defectors from the Burmese army, and villagers who lived in close proximity to the army, often because the army occupied their villages.
    By examining the military structures that gave rise to prevalent rape, this report proposes not to absolve the soldier perpetrators of responsibilities for their crimes. Rather, it examines root causes to better inform advocacy for institutional change, as well as establish individual culpability and argue for individual punishment.

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  • Seeking Justice: The Prosecution of Sexual Violence in the Congo War
    (HRW, 2005)

    This report documents how the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo has taken insufficient steps to prosecute those responsible for wartime rape. Human Rights Watch calls on the Congolese government and international donors, including the European Union, to take urgent steps to reform Congos justice system.

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  • Seeking protection: Addressing sexual and domestic violence in Tanzania's refugee camp
    (HRW, 2000)

    Summarizes the refugee crisis in Tanzania, with specific regard to sexual and domestic violence. An overview of Tanzanian law, international human rights, and the Tanzanian government response are included, as well as that of UNHCR. In addition, selections from UNHCR's "Sexual Violence Against Refugees" are accessible through this site.

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  • Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    (Geneva: WHO, 2005)
  •  
  • Sexual Gender-based Violence and Health Facility Needs Assessment: Montserrado and Bong Counties, Liberia
    Marie-Claire O. Omanyondo (World Health Organization, 2004)

    During Liberias conflicts, women and girls were subjected to specific forms of violence and abuse, whether they remained in the communities or fled as internally displaced people or refugees. It has been reported that members of the fighting forces were the main perpetrators. According to various reports, an estimated two-thirds of the women were subjected to violence during displacement. These acts of violence include random acts of sexual assault, mass rape, sexual slavery and exploitation. With the collaboration of World Health Organization and the support of the Finnish Government, an initial situational analysis in Montserrado and Bong counties was requested and this paper is the outcome.

  •  
  • Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict: United Nations Response
    (UN, 1998)

    Documents international attention and efforts regarding UN work against violence against women. Sections include overviews on the World Conferences on Women in Mexico, Copenhagen and Nairobi, (1975 - 1985), events following Nairobi and leading to Beijing, the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995, and guiding additional initiatives to Beijing+5.

  •  
  • Sexual Violence and its Consequences among Displaced Persons in Darfur and Chad
    (HRW, 2005)

    This briefing paper documents how the Sudanese security forces, including police deployed to protect displaced persons, and allied Janjaweed militias continue to commit rape and sexual violence on daily basis. Even as refugees in Chad, women and girls fleeing the violence in Darfur continued to face the risk of rape and assault by civilians or militia members when collecting water, fuel or animal fodder near the border.

  •  
  • Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post Conflict: A Need for More Focused Action
    Nicola Dahrendorf, Pamela Shifman (Refugee Survey Quarterly, Jul 2004; 23: 7 - 19.)
  •  
  • Sexual violence in Sierra Leone
    C. Bogert, C. Dufka (Lancet 2001; 357(9252): 304)

  •  
  • Sexual violence within the Sierra Leone conflict
    (New York: Human Rights Watch; 2001)

    The perpetration of sexual violence is often marked by the systematic breaking of taboos and undermining of cultural values. Here, Human Rights Watch has documented cases of fathers being forced to watch the rape of their daughters, middle aged women being raped by boys as young as eleven, women being raped in public places, and girls being raped during sacred coming-of-age rituals. As in other countries, the abuse of women in the Sierra Leonean conflict is rooted in the persistent human rights violations that push women into a lower status with limited rights in all spheres of their lives, from home to work.
    Additional resources on Sierra Leone are available through this page.

  •  
  • Shattered lives: Sexual violence during the Rwandan genocide and its aftermath
    (New York: Human Rights Watch; 1996)

  •  
  • Sierra Leone - Rape and other forms of sexual violence against girls and women
    (London: Amnesty International; 2000)

    Rape and sexual violence, committed by government officials or by armed opposition groups are acts of torture. Sexual slavery refers to situations where girls and women are forced into 'marriage', domestic servitude or other forced labour that ultimately involves forced sexual activity, including rape by their captors against girls and women. This report describes the victims and survivors of sexual violence as committed by members of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), in Sierra Leone.

  •  
  • Silent survivors of sexual violence in conflict and the implications for HIV mitigation: experiences from Eritrea
    Janet Gruber ( African Journal of AIDS Research, Volume 4, Number 2, November 2005, pp. 69-73(5))

    This paper considers the impacts of sexual violence perpetrated while the Eritrean town of Senafe was occupied by the Ethiopian military in 2000, during the second EthiopiaEritrea war. It discusses the aftermath for the survivors, all women and girls belonging to the Saho ethnic group, and the responses of other groups in the Saho community. An attempt is made to understand the reasons for the failure of one intervention that sought to provide support to these survivors of sexual violence. The potential repercussions of community denial of the sexual violence are addressed. These include lack of access by survivors to information on HIV, testing and care; refusal to face up to the possible infection of survivors, their husbands and unborn children, and to the psychological, social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS.

  •  
  • Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones
    Wenona Giles, Jennifer Hyndman, eds (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004)
  •  
  • Sourcebook on violence against women
    C. Renzetti, editor (Sage Publications; 2000)

    A collection of original scholarly writings that extensively covers current research on violence against women.

  •  
  • State of the World's Mothers 2005: Protecting Women and Children in War and Conflict
    (Save the Children Alliance, 2005)

    The 2005 annual report on the State of the World's Mothers focuses on the women and children whose lives have been shattered by armed conflict, bringing attention to critical protection needs in war-torn communities around the world.

  •  
  • State of the World's Population, 2005, The
    (UNFPA)

    This report contains several chapters of interest, including subjects on gender and health; men, reproductive rights and gender equality; and women's rights as human rights. A section on ending violence against women and girls notes sexual violence as an access barrier to family planning services, the occurrence of family-based "honour killings," and includes a table on "Gender violence throughout a woman's life."

  •  
  • States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance
    S. Jacobs, R. Jacobson, J. Marchbank (eds.) (Zed Books, Ltd: London. 2000)

    The volume will make links, in an non-simplistic way, between conflicts at the international, national, community, and household levels. It recognizes the enduring relevance of factors such as the exclusion of women from the public sphere and militarized constructions of masculinity to present-day examples of gendered violence. At the same time, it raises awkward questions about women's agency in these contexts.

  •  
  • Statistical information on violence against women during the civil war in Liberia
    P.J. Jennings, S. Swiss (Montreux 2000; 4. -8.9)

  •  
  • Still Waiting After 60 years: Justice for Survivors of Japan's Military Sexual Slavery System
    (Amnesty International, 2005)
  •  
  • Stop violence against women: How to use international criminal law to campaign for gender-sensitive law reform
    (Amnesty International, 2005)
  •  
  • Stopping violence against women
    Arundhati Ray

    Describes the comprehensive services of Swayam, an organization in India fighting violence against women.

  •  
  • Struggling Through Peace: Return and Resettlement in Angola
    (HRW, 2003)

    This report documents several incidents of government authorities using violence, or the threat of violence, to drive people out of camps where they had been living sometimes for years. The report also raises concerns about reported incidents of rape and other sexual violence against internally displaced women and returning refugees.

  •  
  • Struggling To Survive: Barriers to Justice for Rape Victims in Rwanda
    (HRW, 2004)

    This 58-page report investigates the persistent weaknesses in the Rwandan legal system that hamper the investigation and prosecution of sexual violence. The report also documents the desperate health and economic situation of rape survivors. Many of the women who were raped became infected with HIV.

  •  
  • Sudan: Darfur: Rape as a weapon of war: sexual violence and its consequences
    (Amnesty International, 2004)
  •  
  • Suicidality in female victims of war-time rapes.
    M. Loncar, V. Medved, N. Jovanovic, H. Henigsberg, D. Marcinko, Lj. Hotujac , M.R. Kuzman (Psychiatria Danubia. 2006 Sep;18 Suppl 1:139.)

    The 1991-1995 war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina was characterized by systematic mass rapes of civilian women. Expecting polymorphous psychological difficulties among those women, this study aims to investigate associations between suicidality and war-time rape. The authors conducted a study on 68 raped women with each receiving clinical assessments that enabled diagnosis of mental disorders according to the DSM-IV. Testimony method was used to obtain the descriptions of rapes. The purpose of the investigation was to examine the relationship between rape associated factors and suicidality.

  •  
  • Summary Report of Conflict Prevention Needs in the Caucasus
    (International Alert, 2002)
  •  
  • Surrounded: Women and Girls in Northern Uganda
    Erin Patrick (MIgration Policy Institute, 2005)
  •  
  • Swimming upstream: Looking for clues to prevent male violence in couple relationships
    O.M. Telleria (Association of Womens Rights in Development, 2001)

    The article is based on research carried out by Puntos de Encuentro (Common Grounds) in Nicaragua, which aims to identify male fears and expectations in couple relationships with women and to identify the personal and social factors that influence men to be non-violent in couple relationships. The study was part of Puntos

  •  
  • Taking Cover: Women in Post-Taliban Afghanistan
    (HRW, 2002)

    Outside Kabul, more than inside the city, Afghan women continue to face serious threats to their physical safety, which denies them the opportunity to exercise their basic human rights and to participate fully in the rebuilding of their country.

  •  
  • Taliban's War on Women, The
    (Physicians for Human Rights, 1998)

    The extent to which the Taliban regime has violated the human rights of Afghan women is unparalleled in recent history. This report contains compelling evidence of how a society in which women played a prominent role in the health professions, in government, and in teaching, has been replaced by one where: women are regularly and brutally beaten for walking on the street without a male chaperone or without a garment (burqua) that covers their bodies from head to toe; many women must beg because they are largely forbidden from working; women cannot obtain health care from many facilities and cannot be examined by a male doctor without a chaperone, and schools for women and girls have closed their doors with the exception of Qu'ranic training for girls under eight. Such discrimination and the suffering it causes constitute an affront to the dignity and worth of Afghan women and humanity as a whole.

  •  
  • Tokyo Tribunal and Comfort Women (Bibliography)
    (Montreal: Rights & Democracy, 2001)

    Bibliography with English and French texts.

  •  
  • Trafficking in Women: Moldova and Ukraine
    (Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, 2000)

    Documents the trafficking of women for the commercial sex industry as a human rights violation in both Moldova and Ukraine. The report analyzes the mechanisms of trafficking in both countries and the NGO and governmental response to the problem, including information on Moldovan and Ukrainian law. The report also addresses the obligations of the Moldovan and Ukrainian government under international law.

  •  
  • Trapped by Inequality: Bhutanese Refugee Women in Nepal
    (HRW, 2003)

    Bhutanese refugee women in Nepal encounter gender-based violence and systematic discrimination in access to aid. This report examines the uneven response of UNHCR and the government of Nepal to rape, domestic violence, sexual and physical assault, and trafficking of girls and women from refugee camps.

  •  
  • Traumatic Gynecological Fistula: A Consequence of Sexual Violence in Conflict Settings
    (Engender Health/ACQUIRE Project, 2006)

    Information from the landmark meeting in Ethiopia on traumatic gynecologic fistula focusing on incidents in the countries of Burundi, Chad, DRC, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Uganda. The report also covers topics such as FGM, child rape and domestic violence.

  •  
  • Uncharted Passage - Girls' adolescence in the developing world, The
    Barbara S. Mensch, Judith Bruce, Margaret E. Greene (New York, NY: Population Council. 1998)

  •  
  • Uncounted and Discounted: A Secondary Data Research Project on Violence against Women in Afghanistan
    Julie Lafreniere (UNIFEM, 2006)

    This text is a study of more than 1,300 cases reported to authorities between January 2003 and June 2005, found that violence against women  whether sexual, physical or psychological  affects all branches of Afghan society, regardless of the woman's marital status or her level of education or employment. Also available in Dari.

  •  
  • Untold terror: Violence against women in Peru's armed conflict
    (New York: Human Rights Watch; 1992)

    Throughout Peru's twelve-year internal war, women have been the targets of sustained, frequently brutal violence committed by both parties to the armed conflict often for the purpose of punishing or dominating those believed to be sympathetic to the opposing side. Women have been threatened, raped and murdered by both government security forces and by members of the Communist Party of Peru, the Shining Path. Often, the same woman is the victim of violence by both sides. This is the first Americas Watch/Women's Rights Project report to focus on violence against women in Peru. It is part of a broader effort to focus on the role of violence against women in internal and international conflicts in other parts of the world as well, and is meant to complement local efforts to bolster reporting on abuses against women. Order form on website; cost is US$7.

  •  
  • Use of Rape as a Weapon of War in the Conflict in Darfur, Sudan, The
    Tara Gingerich, Jennifer Leaning (Program on Humanitarian Crises and Human Rights, Harvard School of Public Health, 2004)

    Rape as a weapon of war has a long history and only recently has been expressly punished under codified international law. The report that follows has relied on extensive interviews and review of the available published and grey literature to arrive at a qualitative assessment of four issues: the nature of the rapes that have recently and are now occurring in Darfur; the circumstances in which they have taken place; their utility in a war context and in the context of ethnic cleansing or genocide; the impact that these rapes are exacting upon the surviving non-Arab community of Darfur; and possibilities for mitigation and support that are now available to the international community, particularly the U.S. Government.

  •  
  • Violence against Girls in Africa during Armed Conflicts and Crises
    Florence Tercier Holst-Roness (ICRC)

    This is a report on a two day conference entitled Violence Against Girls in Africa held in Addis Ababa and hosted by the African Child Policy Forum, a pan-African organization working to promote children's rights. The report addresses the issue of violence against girls in Africa during armed conflicts and crises. Attention is drawn to the many different ways in which girls experience such situations and briefly presents some of the activities carried out by the ICRC to protect and assist them

  •  
  • Violence Against Palestinian Women
    Orah Maggen, Emelie Marquis, Carin Benninger-Budel (World Organisation Against Torture, 2005)
  •  
  • Violence against Women and Girls: Global Scope and Magnitude
    Charlotte Watts, Cathy Zimmerman (Lancet, 359: 1232-37. 2002)

    This paper discusses the magnitude of some of the most common and severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labor, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war.

  •  
  • Violence against Women During the Liberian Civil Conflict
    S. Swiss, P. Jennings, G. Aryee, C. Brown, R. Jappah-Samukai, M. Kamara, R. Schaack (J of the American Med Association 1998 Feb 25;279(8):625-629)

    This article gives the results of a survey of 205 women, documenting their experiences of violence, including rape and sexual coercion, from a soldier or fighter during the five years of the Liberian civil war from 1989 through 1994.

  •  
  • Violence against Women in Asian Societies
    Lenore Manderson and Linda Rae Bennett, eds. (LOndon: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003)

    Text includes essays on women's rights in the context of human rights whidl addressing gender-based violence. Countries included in this book include Philippines, Burma, India, Cambodia, Malaysia and the more broad South Asian region.

  •  
  • Violence against women in Belgrade, Serbia: SOS Hotline 1990-1993
    Z. Mrsevic, D.M. Hughes (Violence against women 1997, 3(2): 101-128)

  •  
  • Violence against Women in Kenya
    (OMCT (World Organization against Torture), 2003)
  •  
  • Violence against Women in Sierra Leone: Frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence and forced sexual intercourse
    A.L. Coker, D.L. Richter (African J of Reproductive Health 1998; 2(1): 61-72)

  •  
  • Violence against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Alternative report prepared for the Committe on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
    Marie Mossi, Mariana Duarte (OMCT, 2006)

    This text outlines the various international documents that the DRC is signatory to that pertain to women and women's rights.

  •  
  • Violence against Women Living in Armed Conflict Situations
    Assia Brandrup-Lucknaw, Carol Djeddah, Malika Ladjali, Vanita Sundaram, Ranieri Guerra (WHO, 2001)

    The report presents the extant and prevalance of violence against women in situations of armed conflict, and the need to take action. Countries/regions of interest include Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Tajikistan.

  •  
  • Violence against women: A priority health issue
    (Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997)

    Useful to health professionals in the field who are interested in understanding the definition and scope of the problem of violence against women (VAW). The document focuses on rape and sexual assault, situations of armed conflict and displacement, and the health consequences of VAW. Most importantly, the document provides information about what health workers, WHO, and NGOs are doing to address this major public health problem. The document also includes selected human rights documents, UN declarations and treaties, and selected readings that can be useful to professionals in the field.

  •  
  • Violence against Women: Do the Governments Care? NGO Fact Sheets on the State Repsonse
    (Stop Violence Against Women (Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights), 2006)

    The VAW Monitoring Program of the Open Society Institute invited the 24 National VAW Monitors of StopVAW (NGOs working in the field of violence against women) to map the situation in their countries on violence against women, with special regard to the state response to it. The monitoring methodology was based on Recommendation (2002)5 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on the protection of women against violence. As a result of the monitoring, 22 Country Fact Sheets have been prepared. These Fact Sheets issue clear recommendations to governments, serving as effective tools for advocacy at national and international levels. Countries profiled include: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia/Hercegovinia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kosovo, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.

  •  
  • Violence against women: International perspectives
    C. Garcia-Moreno (Am J of Prev Med 2000;19(4): 330-3)

    Addresses several issues related to the international public health problem of violence against women. Describes the magnitude of the problem, responses to violence against women, and identification and evaluation of interventions.

  •  
  • Violence against Women: Trends and Patterns in Asia Pacific
    (Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development, 2003)
  •  
  • Violence and Discrimination against Women in the Armed Conflict in Colombia
    (Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2006)

    This report is based on the results of the on-site visit to Colombia undertaken by the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women of the IACHR. The primary objective of the visit was to assess the impact of the armed conflict on Colombian women and to receive information about the legislative, policy, institutional and judicial measures taken by the State to safeguard the rights of women within the sociopolitical context.

  •  
  • Violence in Public Health and Preventative Medicine
    J. Gilligan (Lancet 2000;355:1802)

  •  
  • Violence: A Reader
    Catherine Besteman (New York: Washington Square Press. 2002)
  •  
  • Voices of African Women: Women's Rights in Ghana, Uganda, and Tanzania
    Johanna Bond (Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2005 (Table of Contents and Preface Available))

    Covers the legal systems within the aforementioned countries as they pertain to women's rights. Chapter 2 focuses on violence against women, while other chapters address HIV/AIDS and women's reproductive health, women's rights within the family, and women's economic empowerment.

  •  
  • War within the War: Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in Eastern Congo, The
    (HRW, 2002)

    The report documents the frequent and sometimes systematic use of rape and other forms of sexual violence in the Rwandan-occupied areas of eastern Congo.The report, which is based on numerous interviews with victims, witnesses, and officials, details crimes of sexual violence committed by soldiers of the Rwandan army and its Congolese ally, the Rassemblement congolais pour la d←mocratie (RCD), as well as armed groups opposed to them  Congolese Mai Mai rebels, and Burundian and Rwandan armed groups.

  •  
  • War's Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes Against Women
    Anne Llewellyn Barstow, ed (Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 2000)
  •  
  • War's Offensive on Women: The Humanitarian Challenge in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan
    Julie A. Mertus, Judy A. Benjamin (Kumarian Press, Incorporated, November 2000)
  •  
  • War-Related Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone: A Population-Based Assessment
    (Physicians for Human Rights with the support of UNAMSIL, 2002)

    Sierra Leone's decade-long conflict has been marked by an extraordinary level of brutal human rights abuses, including summary killings, sexual violence against women and girls, abductions, amputations, and the use of child soldiers. The combined effects of prolonged conflict, pervasive human rights abuses, and massive forced migration1 in one of the poorest countries in the world have devastated the health and well-being of the Sierra Leonean people. The daunting process of rebuilding and reconciliation in the aftermath of such destruction requires the establishment of an accurate account of the nature and extent of abuses that have been committed. For this reason PHR, with the support and participation of UNAMSIL, conducted a population-based assessment of the prevalence and impact of sexual violence and other human rights abuses among IDPs in Sierra Leone.

  •  
  • We Want To Live as Humans: Repression of Women and Girls in Western Afghanistan
    (HRW, 2002)

    The report focuses on the increasingly harsh restrictions on women and girls imposed by Ismail Khan, a local governor in the west of Afghanistan who has received military and financial assistance from the United States. HRW found that women's and girls' rights in Herat had improved since the fall of the Taliban, noting that many women and girls have been allowed to return to school and university, and to some jobs. But the report found that these advances were tempered by growing government repression of social and political life.

  •  
  • We'll Kill You if You Cry: Sexual Violence in the Sierra Leone Conflict
    (HRW, 2003)

    The report presents evidence of horrific abuses against women and girls in every region of the country by the rebel Revolutionary United Front (RUF), as well as other rebel, government and international peacekeeping forces.

  •  
  • What Happened to the Women? Gender and Reparations for Human Rights Violations
    Ruth Rubio-Marin, ed. (The Social Science Research Council, 2006)

    What happens to women whose lives are transformed by human rights violations? What happens to the voices of victimized women once they have their day in court or in front of a truth commission? Women face a double marginalization under authoritarian regimes and during and after violent conflicts. Nonetheless, reparations programs are rarely designed to address the needs of women victims. What Happened to the Women? Gender and Reparations for Human Rights Violations, argues for the introduction of a gender dimension into reparations programs. The volume explores gender and reparations policies in Guatemala, Peru, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Timor-Leste.

  •  
  • What is female empowerment?
    S. Batliwala (1997)

    The author's background as both researcher and activist informed this expression of need for a theoretical framework of female empowerment. The aim was to build a concept that was accessible to other activists and that could change the nature of interventions being made. The theoretical framework presented below should be related to a South Asian context.

  •  
  • When women are the spoils of war
    (UNESCO; 1998)

    Gives estimates for the magnitude of sexual violence during several conflicts as well as estimates for pregnancies resulting from sexual violence. Iraqi soldiers raped an estimated 5,000 Kuwaiti women during the occupation in 1990. The article cites a UN report that estimates that 500,000 women and girls suffered sexual violence in Rwanda. The Algerian government estimates that armed Islamic groups have kidnapped about 1,600 girls and young women to be sexual slaves.
    The Rwandan National Population Office estimates that of the women who survived the genocide, between 2-5 thousand children were born as a result of rape. 1993 estimates for Yugoslavia showed between 1,000 and 2,000 women became pregnant from rape.

  •  
  • Where Are the Girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique
    Susan McKay, Dyan Mazurana (International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development, 2004)

    This study raises awareness of the militarization of the lives of girls in fighting forces and the role they play. The authors use data gleaned from their research in Northern Uganda, Mozambique and Sierra Leone to reveal that girls in fighting forces are not, and never have been, simply "camp followers."

  •  
  • Why Are Women More Vulnerable During Disasters? Violations of Women's Rights in the Tsunami Aftermath
    (Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development, 2005)

    This publication is based on the report on womens human rights violations in the aftermath of the December 26 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Indonesia, India, Thailand and Sri Lanka and the October Earthquake in Pakistan. The report presents testimonies from womens groups involved in the relief efforts which indicate that women are more vulnerable and at risk during natural disasters because when disasters strike women tend to have less access to relief resources as relief efforts rely on existing structures of resource distribution that reflect the patriarchal structure of society.

  •  
  • Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States (Albania)
    (Federation for Human Rights, 2000)

    IHF launched on 9 November 2000 a 552-page report entitled Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women. Only Albania is available online.

  •  
  • Women Facing War: ICRC Study on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women
    Charlotte Lindsey (Geneva: ICRC, 2001)

    This ICRC study is an extensive reference document on the impact of armed conflict on the lives of women. Taking as its premise the needs of women, e.g. physical safety, access to health care, food and shelter, in situations of armed conflict, the study explores the problems faced by women in wartime and the coping mechanisms they employ. A thorough analysis of international humanitarian law, and to a lesser extent human rights and refugee law, was carried out as a means to assess the protection afforded to women through these bodies of law. The study also includes a review of the ICRC's operational response to the needs of women as victims of armed conflict. Overview of contents and executive summary.

  •  
  • Women in difficult circumstances: War victims and refugees
    B. Rojnik, L. Andolsek-Jeras, D. Obersnel-Kveder (International J of Gyn & Ob 1995; 48: 311-315)

    Discusses reproductive health as a reproductive and human right, and discusses the tactic of rape as a tool of war in Bosnia. Muslim women were doubly victimized by first being raped by one ethnic group, and then rejected by family and friends. As a result, they were left to deal with the consequences, such as unwanted pregnancy and STDs, alone. Women were often kept in rape camps well into their pregnancies to prevent them from seeking abortions. In addition, some women who were able to obtain abortions would not do so, since receiving one was taken seen to be a sign that the woman was raped. The true magnitude of rape in Bosnia may never be known, but an early report of 60,000 victims is believed to be an overestimate. What is known is that of all reported rapes, 80% occurred during imprisonment and during the first two years of the war.

  •  
  • Women of Our World 2005
    (Population Reference Bureau)

    An updated data sheet that catalogs the status of women in 180 countries. The data in the wallchart show that women have seen major gains in health, education, and rights over the last half-century, but that progress has been uneven. Women in the poorest countries continue to be held back by gender inequality that limits their schooling, hinders their ability to plan their pregnancies, and affords them few economic opportunities. The data sheet contains indicators on reproductive health, including maternal mortality, fertility rates, and HIV/AIDS, as well as demography, education, economic status, and political leadership.

  •  
  • Women of the world: Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives (Francophone Africa)
    (Center for Reproductive Law and Policy 2000. Order hard copy of book or view electronic version online)

    An in-depth examination of the laws and policies affecting women's reproductive health and rights in seven countries of Francophone Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal.

  •  
  • Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives: East and South East Asia
    (New York: Center for Reproductive Rights, 2005)

    This text provides an extensive compilation of laws and policies influencing women's reproductive health in five countries of the region: China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and draws attention to specific issues that require legal and policy reform.

  •  
  • Women of the world: Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives: East Central Europe
    (Center for Reproductive Law and Policy 2000. Order hard copy of book or view electronic version online)

    The report is an extensive examination of laws and policies affecting women's lives in Albania, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Russia. Based on eighteen months of research, the report is a unique collaboration between non-governmental organizations in each of these countries and CRLP. The report concludes that the privatization of the health care system under structural adjustment programs has led to decreased spending on health care and a deterioration in women's ability to control their fertility. Access to comprehensive reproductive health services and basic family planning, such as contraceptives, is extremely limited across the region.

  •  
  • Women of the world: Laws and policies affecting their reproductive lives: Latin America
    (Center for Reproductive Law and Policy 1997. Plus Progress Report, 2000.)

    This book on Latin America and the Caribbean is the product of a unique series of collaborative reports between the U.S.-based Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and national-level NGOs around the world. CRLP and NGOs in have surveyed laws and policies in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru.

  •  
  • Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives: South Asia
    (New York: Center for Reproductive Rights, 2004)

    This text is the first extensive examination of laws and policies that influence womens reproductive health in five countries of the region - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The report, which is based on three years of research, is the result of a collaborative partnership between the Center and leading nongovernmental organizations in the region.

  •  
  • Women Testify: A Planning Guide for Popular Tribunals and Hearings
    Niamh Reilly, Linda Posluszny (Rutgers: Center for Women's Global Leadership, 2005)

    This document draws on the Center for Womens Global Leaderships experiences of organizing womens human rights tribunals and hearings over the past decade.

  •  
  • Women's Bodies as a Battleground: Sexual Violence against Women and Girls During the War in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    International Alert (International Alert, 2005)

    Combatants on all sides of the conflict in Eastern DRC have been using sexual violence purposefully as a weapon of war. Acts of sexual violence continue to be committed with unprecedented cruelty, the perpetrators inflicting the most humiliating and degrading treatment on their victims that they can devise. This report is based on interviews with 492 women and 50 soldiers in Eastern DRC. It documents the violation of womens human rights during the war and examines the socio-cultural roots of this violence and the different forms it takes.

  •  
  • Women's Health in Crises
    WHO (Health in Emergencies, Issue Number 20, January 2005)
  •  
  • Women's Organization of Burma Shadow Report, The
    (Women of Burma, 2000)
  •  
  • Women's Organizations Working for Peace and Reconciliation in the Great Lakes Region of Africa
    Rosalind Boyd (Centre for Developing-Area Studies, McGill University , 2001)
  •  
  • Women's Strategic Responses to Violence in Nicaragua
    M C Ellsberg, A Winkvist, R Pe￱a, H Stenlund (J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55:547-555)

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  • Women, health and humanitarian aid in conflict
    C. Palmer, A. Zwi (Disasters 1998; 22(3): 236-249)

    Discusses ways in which gender affects health, specifically how gender awareness is needed in humanitarian aid for refugees. The author gives examples of gender inequality leading to negative health outcomes, such as male feelings of demotion leading to drugs and alcohol leading to increased domestic violence; women forced into prostitution facing an increased risk of HIV/AIDS and violence, and how female-headed households with lack of protection are particularly vulnerable to violence.

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  • Women, violence and health
    (Amnesty International, 2005)
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  • Women, Violence and War: Wartime Victimization of Refugees in the Balkans
    Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic, ed (Budapest: Central European University Press. 2000.)
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  • Women, War and Peace: The Independent Experts' Assessment on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Womens Role in Peace-building
    Elisabeth Rehn, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (UNIFEM, 2002)

    This independent assessment examines the impact of armed conflict on women and womens role in peace-building and provides key recommendations that focus on finding ways to protect and empower women for UN agencies and the wider international community.

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  • Women, War, Peace
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  • Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict and Violence
    G. Barker and C. Ricardo (World Bank, 2005)

    The authors carried out an extensive literature review, identified promising programs applying a gender perspective to work with young men, carried out 50 informant interviews with staff working with young men in Botswana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda, and 23 focus group discussions and interviews with young men in Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda.

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